Abdullahi K. Additive manufacturing AM for fabricating 3D metallic parts has recently received considerable attention.
Among the emerging AM technologies is ultrasonic additive manufacturing UAM or ultrasonic consolidation UCwhich uses ultrasonic vibrations to bond similar or dissimilar materials to produce 3D builds. This technology has several competitive advantages over other AM technologies, which includes fabrication of dissimilar materials and complex shapes, higher deposition rate, and fabrication at lower temperatures, which results in no material transformation during processing.
Although UAM process optimization and microstructure have been reported in the literature, there is still lack of standardized and satisfactory understanding of the mechanical properties of UAM builds. This could be attributed to structural defects associated with UAM processing. This article discusses the effects of UAM process parameters on the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. Special attention is given to hardness, shear strength, tensile strength, fatigue, and creep measurements.
Also, pull-out, push-out, and push-pin tests commonly employed to characterize bond quality and strength have been reviewed.
Finally, current challenges and drawbacks of the process and potential applications have been addressed. Historically, ultrasonic welding of metals has been in existence since the s for welding battery tabs, and thin foil for packaging application and for electronic wires [ 1 ]. InWhite founded Solidica Inc. UAM or UC is a solid-state technology for joining similar or dissimilar materials usually metal foils near room temperature by bonding them together layer by layer with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure to form 3D as-built parts [ 4 ].
The working principle of this technology is simple, and Figure 1 illustrates the UC process and setup components.Xml to sql table online
Figure 2 demonstrates the steps involved in attaining a high-strength bond via UAM. The process begins with laying a metal base plate and pressing a thin metal foil on it [ 15 ]. High-frequency ultrasonic vibrations are applied in order to scrub the mating faces while keeping a constant force [ 1 ]. The ultrasonic motion causes shearing, which cleans off the surface oxides via friction to allow direct metal-metal contact.
Also, this shearing process leads to generation of dynamic interfacial stresses between the contacting surfaces [ 2 ]. Plastic deformation and recrystallization at the bond interface result in a high-strength metallurgical solid-state bond [ 1 ]. Kong et al. Microstructural analyses have shown that plastic deformation plays an important role in facilitating the onset of bonding [ 89 ].
Second is the surface bonding, which is associated with interfacial friction and shearing that breaks up the oxide layers [ 10 ]. UAM operates at temperatures much lower than the melting temperatures of the starting materials, usually 0. With this attribute, bonding of dissimilar materials becomes feasible, and the properties of each building martial are retained. Similar and dissimilar builds via UAM such as Al-Al [ 1012 — 15 ], Al-Ti [ 16 ], Al-NiTi [ 17 ], Al-SiC [ 1819 ], Al with embedded dielectric materials inks used in printed electronics industry [ 20 ], low carbon steel [ 2122 ], and Al-shape memory alloy SMA [ 23 ] have been reported in the literature so far.
Similar to other additive manufacturing processes, the UAM process is accompanied with periodic machining in order to obtain the final geometry.
However, only a small amount of machining is required since UAM produces a near-net shape build.The fine rod and the acicular Mg 2 Sn and MgSnY phases, as well as their aggregations, were dispersed in the shear-extruded alloy. The grain size was refined to below 6. Open PDF. Emerging Materials Research. Volume 5 Issue 1, Junepp. Author Affiliations. Key: Open access content Subscribed content Free content Trial content.
Keywords: material processing mechanical properties microscopy. Full Text References. Related content. Effect of Y addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of extruded Mg—Mn alloys. Synthesis, characterization and mechanical properties of biodegradable magnesium alloys. The quasi-static deformation and fracture behavior of novel high-strength steel for emerging applications.
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Related search. By Keyword material processing mechanical properties microscopy. No search history Recently Viewed. Microstructure and mechanical properties of shear-extruded Mg-Sn-Y-Zr alloys.The shear assisted processing and extrusion ShAPE process can consolidate powdered materials and simultaneously extrude wire or tube with improved properties.
Emerging Materials Research
We successfully produced copper wire extrusions from powder and solid materials for the first time. The extrusion pressure in the ShAPE process is at least ten times less than that required for conventional extrusion. We used optical microscopy to inspect and validate the integrity of extrudates, revealing that the microstructure was refined and dynamically recrystallized to equiaxial grains.
These results were correlated with refined grain size and substructuring observed via electron backscatter diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Li, W. Tang, A. Reynolds, W. Tayon, and C. Brice, J. Tang and A. Reynolds, J. Li, D. Baffari, and A. Reynolds, Int. Gronostajski, J. Kaczmar, H. Marciniak, and A.
Matuszak, J.The microstructure of the bonding interfaces and constituent metals was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for the LMCs with different layers.
The deformation incompatibility and shear actions were analyzed using the microanalysis of dissimilar bonding interfaces. The mechanism of grain refinement of LMCs was investigated and described based on the microstructure characterization. The mechanical properties, strengthening mechanism, and fracture mechanism of LMCs were also investigated. The research results showed that the strengthening mechanism of LMCs is the recombination action of grain refinement, dislocation, and laminated interfacial strengthening.
The coordinated deformation of dissimilar metals and the layer thickness are important in improving the mechanical properties of LMCs consisting of dissimilar metals.
Such materials usually have superior mechanical and physical properties, including high strength, improved corrosion resistance, and higher wear resistance, which are very different from the same materials comprising conventionally sized grains [ 1 — 5 ]. Therefore, the field of UFG materials remains one of the hot topics in the field of materials science and engineering. Two complementary approaches have been developed for synthesizing UFG materials.
The bottom-up process to obtain theoretical dense materials is the pulsed electrodeposition method, which yields nanocrystalline strips; however, these strips only have thicknesses of several hundred microns [ 67 ]. The most successful top-down approaches involve the application of severe plastic deformation SPD [ 258 — 10 ], in which materials are subjected to the imposition of strains that are typically larger than 4—6.
A unique feature of SPD processing is that the high strain is imposed without any significant change in the overall dimensions of the sample [ 25 ]. The SPD approach starts with conventional crystalline microstructured metals and alloys, and defects such as dislocations and point defects are introduced by extreme strains on the precursor materials. The recrystallization of the material leads to finer and finer grain sizes and under certain processing conditions to nanostructured materials.
A unique feature of SPD processing is that a high strain is imposed without any significant change in the overall dimensions of the sample [ 2 ]. When all the approaches in use for the production of nanostructured materials are examined, only the SPD processes show potential for producing relatively large samples suitable for industrial applications. Among the SPD methods [ 258 — 10 ], the ARB method [ 1213 ] obviously exceeds others for its high efficiency, high speed, and continuous working.
ARB has the benefit that it does not require specialized equipment or tooling, only a conventional rolling mill. It is a method of rolling a stack of metal sheets, which is repeatedly rolled to give a severe reduction ratio, and then dividing the stack into two halves, placing one pile on the other and then rolling it again. The surfaces to be joined must be cleaned well before rolling to ensure good bonding. It has often been proposed as a method for the production of metal materials with UFG microstructure.
The earliest research on ARB was by Saito and coworkers [ 1213 ]. To obtain a single slab of a solid material, the rolling involved not only deformation, but also roll bonding [ 21 ].16d music mp3 download
It is observed that more efforts are focused on the area of LMCs consisting of dissimilar metals with ultrafine or nanostructured grains. However, the scientific community still faces some important issues, including improving fatigue strength, ductility, strength, and thermal stability.
The interface shear actions, strengthening mechanisms, and deformation behaviors for the LMCs consisting of UFG metals and alloys have not been studied in depth. The aim of this project was to investigate the interface shear actions and strengthening mechanisms of nanostructured Al alloy LMCs.
In this study, the LMC is composed of the commercial pure aluminum AA and the high strength aluminum alloy AAand the detailed chemical compositions are shown in Table 1. The roll bonding experiments were carried out in an LG rolling mill. The roll bonding process of LMCs with different numbers of layers is shown in Figure 2. The surfaces of the sheets were polished using a stainless steel wire brush with a 0. These processes are called the 1st ARB cycle.Star trek fleet command find missions
Tensile tests were carried out using three tensile samples for each LMCs sheet at room temperature on a Shimadzu AG-X testing machine operated at a constant crosshead speed with an initial strain rate of 5. The dimensions of the tensile test sample are shown in Figure 3. To investigate the tensile fracture behavior, the fracture surface of the tensile samples was characterized by SEM for the LMCs with different numbers of layers.
Figure 4 shows that the LMCs have achieved good bonding with hot ARB; that is, in the bonding interface no cracking and delamination defects were observed. The inhomogeneous deformations have occurred in each of the constituent metals based on the observation of bonding interface topographies.
For the 5-layer LMC as shown in Figure 4 athe layer thickness is basically uniform, and the bonding interfaces are almost straight. The fluctuation of layer thickness starts with layer LMCs Figure 4 band the degree of fluctuation is enhanced with increasing numbers of layers below a certain layer number.Wdupload premium key
The fluctuation of the bonding interfaces is often manifested as the necking of AA layers and waviness of AA layers.Magnesium Technology pp Cite as.
In this work, microstructural characterization and mechanical properties are investigated for rare earth magnesium alloy, WE43, manufactured via a high-shear deposition process. The unique solid-state manufacturing process deposits feedstock via a hollow nonconsumable rotating cylindrical tool, thereby generating heat and plastically deforming the feedstock through controlled pressure as successive layers are metallurgically bonded upon a substrate.
Authors Authors and affiliations Z. McClelland D. Avery M. Williams C.Best cura profile
Mason O. Rivera C. Leah P. Allison J. Jordon R. Martens N. Conference paper First Online: 14 February This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Google Scholar. Hirsch and T. Sing, J. An, W. Yeong, and F. Gieseke, C. Noelke, S. Kaierle, V. Wesling, and H. Palanivel, P. Nelaturu, B. Glass, and R. CrossRef Google Scholar. Adams, J. Allison, and J. Fatiguevol. Yu, W. Li, R.Access OSRconnect Find business licences and permits Find business grants and assistance Use our payroll tax calculators Use our transfer duty calculator Access MinesOnlineMaps More online services.
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